Dorchester Youth Hockey provides youth, regardless of race, creed, or national origin with the opportunity to practice the ideals of sportsmanship and fair play.

Sponsored By:   In Memory of Charlie Hoy
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Before examining the reasons for using small-area games in practices and the benefits

these games provide, we must first define what a small area game is.

Small-area games are game-like competitive drills that utilize a playing surface

that has been reduced in size.

the ice and can be played cross-ice, between face-off dots, in one corner, below the faceoff

dots or in any other number of areas, including the neutral zone.

The area of the rink being used is dependant upon the skills being taught. Most games

are designed to teach a combination of individual skills and are most easily played in a

cross-ice format. However, some games will be moved into a much smaller section of

the rink to create a smaller playing surface while other games will take advantage of a

much larger area to teach team skills such as breakouts or power plays.

A typical small-area game will be played in one end of

The number of participants is lowered in small-area games.

players can be used. Again, it depends upon the situation, the level of play and the skills

being taught. Teams can have anywhere from one to four (or more) players and will

compete against other teams that may or may not have the same number of players.

Coaches can choose to add support players or station themselves in a position to become

part of the game to receive and give passes or create any number of potential odd-man

situations within a game.

Any combination of

Special rules and conditions are applied to small-area games.

dedicating a section to this topic later in this guide, it is important to mention here that

small-area games are created to mimic different situations that are seen in a regular

game. While games can be played without any special rules or conditions, it is usually

these small modifications that keep the games fresh and allow players to see many

different offensive and defensive situations.

Even though I am

Small-area games are designed to focus on multiple skills and situations, increasing

puck touches and situational repetition.

more puck touches because of the reduced size of the playing area, the reduced number

of players and the special conditions placed on each game. At any level of play, an

During a small-area game, players will have

average player may only have control of the puck for a few seconds during the course of

a game. Depending on the game being played, that same player may have over a minute

of competitive puck-possession time while taking six or seven shifts in just one tenminute

game. Within every small-area game, players are also placed in more tight

situations and have more attempts on net than in any traditional drill seen . all

while competing and having fun.

An often overlooked benefit of small-area games is the positive effect they have on

goaltenders. Goaltenders, arguably the most important part of any team, are often the

most neglected players in practice. Most drills provide shots that either don.t challenge

the goaltenders, come so quickly that the goaltender does not have time to recover

properly, or come at a pace that does not adequately duplicate conditions seen in a real

game. Goaltenders thrive in small-area games because they are seeing live competition

and . much like a skater getting quality puck touches . can face as many shots in one

ten minute small-area game as they will see in an entire regulation game.

So who uses small-area games, anyway?

Europeans. been successfully using competitive games in their practices for

years. Recently, small-area games have become more commonplace in North America

as well. They are used extensively in many professional organizations, colleges, junior

programs and USA Hockey.s National Team Development Program. Many successful

high school and youth programs have implemented small-area games as a major means

of teaching skills and team concepts as well.

Small-area games are nothing new to the


The reasons for using small-area games as the main teaching tool in youth hockey

practices are numerous. We.ll spend some time in the following pages looking at a

number of great reasons to use small-area games.

Before looking at those reasons, though, we must take note of the fact that while using

small-area games in practices is a relatively new concept, small-area games are not a

new concept. Kids have been creating small-area games forever. Pick-up or shinny

games on outdoor rinks or ponds have rarely featured the nets set nearly 200 feet apart.

Street hockey games rarely cover half of a city block. These games, whether on ice or

land, have traditionally taken place in a small area.

Not coincidentally, when long-time hockey coaches or enthusiasts discuss what is

missing from today.s game, the discussion often centers around the lack of shinny or

street hockey that exists in today.s society. Kids have interests and options outside of

hockey and the world is a much different place than it was even twenty years ago.

With that in mind, coaches must find a way to bring the fun and skill development from

the outdoor rink indoors. Small-area games are the most effective way to accomplish

this important goal. Here.s why:

Small-area games promote creativity and experimentation.

use today are scripted and include a pre-determined outcome. Nothing in the game of

hockey is predetermined. Full-ice 1 on 1 drills, 2 on 0 or 3 on 0 drills done at half

speed and any number of other drills that are commonplace in our practices do not

replicate actual game conditions. Through the continued use of these drills, we

eliminate the thought process and decision making skills of our players. Small-area

games produce situations that our players will see time and again in competition.

Through trial and error, they will develop many different options to create plays and

experience success.

Too may of the drills we

Small-area games create a more competitive practice environment.

fun. More than that, small-area games push players to work harder, compete at game

speed and learn to succeed against competition.

Competition is

Small-area games eliminate the need for traditional conditioning drills.

game comprised of short, explosive bursts of power. Shifts are short . typically

anywhere from 30 to 50 seconds . and are followed by periods of rest two to three times

that long. Logic should tell us that we should train our players in the manner in which

they will play. Unfortunately, that.s rarely the case.

Many coaches insist on their players skating a variety of lengthy endurance drills . we

know them by many names . such as Herbies and sideboards that force players to

attempt to skate at top speed for up to two full minutes. Of course, we know it is

physiologically impossible to skate at top speed for this long. Without going into a

detailed discussion, what actually happens during these drills is that players will

gradually lose knee bend in the skating stride, bend their backs and lose the ability to

fully extend the stride leg at a proper angle. Thus, through the continued use of these

endurance drills, coaches are actually creating slower skaters by systematically

destroying skating mechanics.

Small-area games provide an intense environment in which to train while maintaining a

proper work-to-rest ratio for players. Coaches using small-area games in place of

traditional conditioning drills will find that their players are more willing to .work. in

practice because they are having fun and competing. Players will almost always ask for

one more shift in a small-area game. How many players are begging their coaches for a

chance to skate six sideboards one more time?

Hockey is a

Small-area games keep more players moving.

practice during which a drill is run with one player at a time skating through the drill

while fifteen other players stand in the corner and watch? What are these drills

accomplishing? The game of hockey is not played one player at a time. More than that,

hockey is a sport in which skills can only be gained through continuous proper

repetition. How many quality repetitions can a player gain in a twelve minute drill

when only one player at a time takes part in the drill? As already discussed, there

was a time when players could overcome this type of practice structure by going to the

outdoor rink to sharpen their skills. Players rarely visit the outdoor rink anymore.

Therefore, practices must be designed to allow players the quality repetitions they need

to improve. A twelve minute 3 on 3 game played with eighteen players can give each

Have you ever witnessed a hockey

player upwards of six competitive shifts in which they could have more than fifty puck

touches and perform every skating maneuver imaginable. This is all done within a

system that develops teamwork, camaraderie and hockey sense.

Small-area games develop and improve individual and team skills.

develop and improve every skill related to the game of hockey through the use of smallarea

games. The next chapter of this manual is dedicated to taking a look at a number of

the skills that small-area games can be use to teach.

Players can

Players learn to excel in tight situations.

small areas and in tight situations. As players continue to get bigger, stronger and

faster, the rink continues to shrink and there is less room to execute. Training to play in

these situations through the use of small-area games will strengthen players and teams

by practicing for these tight playing conditions on a daily basis. As players get more

comfortable playing and practicing in small areas, they are better able to execute skills

and systems in competition.

The modern game of hockey is played in

Your players will develop game strategies, make better decisions and have greater

enthusiasm for practice.

game that they have seen hundreds of times before, they.ll know how to handle it.

Players can.t be expected to make proper decisions and go to the right place on the ice

during a game if they have never been trained to do it. Where does hockey sense come

from? For some players it may be an inborn trait, but for most players hockey sense

comes through experience. If not on the outdoor rinks playing pick-up hockey,

where is that experience going to come from? It has to be built into practices.

Another common complaint from coaches is that kids don.t want to practice; they just

want to play games. .Practice is boring and the kids just want to have fun. The kids

won.t work hard at practice, so nothing gets accomplished.. This may very well be true

for a number of coaches and teams. It.s true; if the kids aren.t having fun they won.t

work as hard. If your players want competition, give it to them. Give it to them on a

daily basis in the form of small-area games and watch as the attitude and the level of

play consistently improves.

The bottom line is, when players see a situation develop in a


Players of all ability levels improve.

level, that they feel they can.t run effective practices because of the diverse talent levels

within their team. Combined practices are another concern. How can coaches challenge

all players and keep practices flowing? By using small-area games and pairing players

of like abilities together, all players will be challenged, but not overwhelmed.

Small-area games are an outstanding option for both highly talented teams and in-house

youth teams. Why? Better players are able to flourish and improve more rapidly when

placed in competitive situations against other highly skilled players. constantly

challenged to do more because of the small space in which the games are played. In

small-area games, weaker players are going to be involved in the play more often and

have an opportunity to develop their skills in a competitive situation. They.ll improve

over time while having fun and feeling more like a part of the team. Players of all skills

levels will be challenged, competing and having fun.

I hear from many coaches, mainly at the youth

Small-area games foster a love and enjoyment of the game because players and


enjoyable experience for everyone involved. Implementing small-area games in your

practices will raise the enthusiasm level of your players and give them something to

look forward to in each practice. Happy players fall in love with the game and will want

to continue coming back to the rink. It.s no different for coaches. a better coach

if having fun and enjoying yourself. Teams model themselves after their

coaches. A happy, hard-working coach with a great attitude will produce a team with

similar traits.

have fun! Hockey is the greatest game in the world and it should be an

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As coaches, we all have our tried-and-true methods of teaching specific individual

skills. In no way am I advocating that we dismiss traditional individual skill training

and the drills that are used to teach those skills. Rather, I would make the argument that

it.s what we do in addition to our traditional drills and teachings that will have the most

profound impact on our players. That.s where small-area games come into play.

Virtually any individual or team skill can be taught through the use of small-area games.

Of course, just as in a real game, virtually every skill imaginable is needed and will be

practiced in a small-area game. This is accomplished in a learning-friendly environment

in which the players are having fun. As a coach, have the courage to allow players to

figure things out for themselves and let the game teach the game. Here.s a very brief

look at some of the skills commonly taught through the use of small-area games:


stops and starts, tight turns, transitions, crossovers and the forward and backward stride

will all be practiced in virtually every game.

Every skating maneuver is needed in small-area games. Lateral movement,


can be applied to games requiring a number of passes prior to a shot on net or require

players to give and receive passes from support players.

Nearly every game incorporates passing as an integral part of the game. Rules


competitive playing conditions as a typical small-area game. Players are encouraged

and required to use a variety of different shots, including the nearly-ignored backhand,

and attack the net to capitalize on rebounds.

No traditional drill will allow players to attempt as many shots under


small-area games. More than simply handling the puck, required to do it in tight

areas and under pressure. In my experience, this is the optimal way to become a better


Every player has the opportunity to handle the puck a great deal in


work the puck low in the offensive zone. Competitive games allow players to develop

Many small-area games can be designed to give players the opportunity to

the ability to work together to control the puck deep in the offensive zone while under

the same type of defensive pressure they would typically face in a real game.


players must make from offense to defense. Forwards and defensemen alike are put into

situations that they would rarely, if ever, see in a traditional drill; yet routinely have to

face during actual competition.

One of the trademarks of small-area games are the continual transitions


areas, they learn to close gaps and cut angles with a great deal of skill.

Because defenders are placed into a variety of real-game situations in small


creates an excellent opportunity for teams to practice specific plays during a live,

competitive situation.

Games can be designed to incorporate breakouts and forechecks. This

Power plays.

typical power play alignments such as the overload and the umbrella. Conditions and

rules regarding the number of players on each team and their positioning can be

implemented to meet specific needs.

Many small-area games provide odd-man situations that closely replicate

Puck support.

properly support the puck carrier and position themselves to receive passes, anticipate

turnovers and run interference for teammates.

To achieve success in most any small-area game, players must learn to

Hockey sense.

hockey sense through experience and repetition. Over the course of a season, small-area

games can give players hundreds of quality repetitions in various situations that are

commonly seen in real games. Traditional drills are all too often scripted, eliminating

the thought process and decision making skills. Outcomes of small-area games, while

containing specific guidelines and rules, are never predetermined.

Remember, these are just a few of the numerous individual and team skills that may be

learned and practiced through the use of small-area games in your practices.

Hockey sense is a skill that a coach cannot teach. Players only gain